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100 የምንጊዜም ታላላቅ ድርሰቶች

(አፈንዲ ሙተቂ)

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ሰሞኑን የብሉይ/ዘመን አይሽሬ (Classic) ድርሰቶችን መቃኘት ጀምረናል:: በዚሁ ጉዞ ለትንሽ ጊዜ እንቀጥላለን፡፡ በመሀሉ የምንጊዜም ምርጥ የስነ-ጽሑፍ ስራዎች ተብለው የተመረጡ 100 መጻሕፍትን ላስተዋውቃችሁ፡፡

በዚህ ዝርዝር ውስጥ የተካተቱት ድርሰቶች ከመላው ዓለም የተገኙ ናቸው፡፡ ሁላቸውም የፈጠራ ስራዎች ሲሆኑ ይህንን የአንድ መቶ መጻሕፍት ምርጫ ያካሄደው ተቀማጭነቱ በሀገረ ኖርዌይ የሆነው “የኖርዌይ የመጻሕፍት ክለብ” ነው፡፡ በዝርዝሩ ላይ አንዳንድ ቅሬታዎች ቢኖሩም በብዙዎች እምነት መሰረት መሰረት ዝርዝሩ ምርጥ የተባሉትን መጻሕፍት ለማካተት ሞክሯል፡፡

በዚህ ዝርዝር ላይ የተጠቀሱት አንዳንድ መጻሕፍት ደራሲአቸው አይታወቅም፡፡ አንዳንዶቹ ደግሞ የአንድ ሰው ስራ ብቻ አለመሆናቸው ተረጋግጧል፡፡ አንዳንዶቹ ደግሞ የመጀመሪያው ትክክለኛ ቅጂአቸው ጠፍቷል፡፡

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በዝርዝሩ ላይ ብዙ ድርሰቶችን በማስመረጥ አንደኛ የሆነችው ሀገር ታላቋ ብሪታኒያ ናት፡፡ ከርሷ በመለጠቅም ፈረንሳይ፣ ሩሲያና አሜሪካ እንደ ቅደም ተከተላቸው ብዙ ድርሰቶችን አስመርጠዋል፡፡ ብዙ ድርሰቶች የተመረጡለት ደራሲ የሩሲያው ደራሲ ፎዮዶር ዶስቶየቭስኪ ሲሆን የዶስቶየቭስኪ አራት ድርሰቶች በዝርዝሩ ውስጥ ተካተዋል፡፡ ዊሊያም ሼክስፒር፤ ሊዮ ቶልስቶይና ፍራንዝ ካፍካ እያንዳንዳቸው ሶስት ሶስት ድርሰቶች ተመርጠውላቸዋል፡፡

አፍሪቃ በግብጻዊው ነጂብ ማሕፉዝ እና በሱዳናዊው ሳሊህ አል-ጠይብ ሁለት ድርሰቶች ተወክላለች፡፡ መካከለኛው ምስራቅ በዝነኛው “አረቢያን ናይትስ” ተወክሏል፡፡ ኢራን በበኩሏ የምንጊዜም የስነ-ጽሑፍ ጀግኖቿ በሆኑት ሩሚ እና ሳዲ ተወክላለች፡፡ ላቲን አሜሪካ፣ ህንድና ጃፓን እያንዳንዳቸው በሶስት ድርሰቶች ተወክለዋል፡፡

በዝርዝሩ ላይ በቅድሚያ የተጻፈው የሚጉኤል ሰርቫንቴ ታላቅ ድርሰት የሆነው “ዶን ኪኾቴ” ነው፡፡ መራጮቹ ይህንን መጽሐፍ “የምንጊዜውም ምርጥ ድርሰት” የሚል ደረጃ ሰጥተውታል፡፡ የተቀሩት 99 መጻሕፍት ግን በእኩል ደረጃ ተፈላጊ ናቸው ተብለዋል፡፡ ስለዚህ ከዶን ኪኾቴ በስተቀር የተቀሩት መጽሐፍት እኩል ደረጃ የተሰጣቸው መሆኑ ሊታወቅ ይገባል፡፡

በዝርዝሩ ላይ በቅድሚያ የተጻፈው የመጽሐፉ ርዕስ ነው፡፡ ከርሱ ትይዩ ያለው የደራሲው ስም ነው፡፡ በቅንፍ ውስጥ የደራሲው ዜግነት ተጠቅሷል፡፡


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1. Don Quixote= Miguel Cervantes (Spain)

2. The Lord of the Rings= John Tolkien (Britain)

3. Fairy Tales= Hans Christian Anderson (Denmark)

4. The Devine Comedy= Dante Alighieri (Italy)

5. Epic of Gilgamesh= Unknown author (Akkadian Empire- Mesopotamia)

6. Les Miserables= Victor Hugo (France)

7. One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights)= Unknown author (Arabia, Persia, India, Egypt, Iraq)

8. Njal’s Saga= Unknown author (Iceland)

9. Pride and Prejudice= Jane Austen (Britain)

10. Le Pere Goriot= Honore de Balzac (France)

11. The Triology (Molloy, Malone Dies, The Unnamable)= Samuel Becket (Ireland)

12. The Decameron= Giovanni Boccaccio (Italy)

13. Ficciones= Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina)

14. Wuthering Heights= Emily Bronte (Britain)

15. The Stranger= Albert Camus (France)

16. Poems= Paul Clean (Romania)

17. Journey to the End of the Nights= Louis Ferdinand Celine (France)

18. The Canterbury Tales= Geoffrey Chaucer (Britain)

19. Stories= Anton Chekhov (Russia)

20. Nostromo= Joseph Conrad (Britain)

21. Great Expectations= Charles Dickens (Britain)

22. Jacques the Fatalist= Denis Diderot ((France)

23. Berlin Alexanderplatz= Alfred Doblin (Germany)

24. Crime and Punishment= Fyodor Dostoyevsky (Russia)

25. The Idiot= Fyodor Dostoyevsky (Russia)

26. The Possessed= Foyodor Dostoyevsky (Russia)

27. The Brothers Karamazov= Fyodor Dostoyevsky (Russia)

28. Middlemarch= George Eliot (Britain)

29. Invisible Man= Ralph Ellison (United States)

30. Medea= Euripides (Greek)

31. Absalom! Absalom= William Faulkner (United States)

32. The Sound and the Furry= William Faulkner (United States)

33. Madame Bovary= Gustave Flaubert (France)

34. Sentimental Education= Gustave Flaubert (France)

35. Gypsy Ballads= Federico Garcia Lorca (Spain)

36. One Hundred Years of Solitude= Gabriel Garcia Marquez (Columbia)

37. Love in the Time of Cholera= Gabriel Garcia Marquez (Columbia)

38. Faust= Wolfgang von Goethe (Germany)

39. Deal Souls= Nikolai Gogol (Russia)

40. The Tin Drum= Gunter Grass (Germany)

41. The Devil to Pay in the Backlands= Joao Guimaraes Rosa (Brazil)

42. Hunger= Knut Hamsun (Norway)

43. The Old man and the Sea= Ernest Hemingway (United States)

44. Iliad= Homer (Greek)

45. Odyssey= Homer (Greek)

46. A Doll’s House= Henrik Ibsen (Norway)

47. Ulysses= James Joyce (Ireland)

48. Stories= Franz Kafka (Austria)

49. The Trial= Franz Kafka (Austria)

50. The Castle= Franz Kafka (Austria)

51. Shakuntala= Kalidasa (India)

52. The Sound of the Mountain= Yasunari Kawabata (Japan)

53. Zorba the Greek= Nikos Kazantzakis (Greek)

54. Sons and Lovers= D.H. Lawrence (Britain)

55. Independent People = Halloder Laxness (Iceland)

56. Poems= Giacomo Leopardi (Italy)

57. The Golden Notebook= Doris Lessing (Britain)

58. Pippi Longstoking= Astrid Lindgren (Sweden)

59. A Madman’s Diary=Lu Xun (China)

60. Children of Gebelawi= Naguib Mahfouz (Egypt)

61. Buddenbrooks= Thomas Mann (Germany)

62. The Magic Mountain= Thomas Mann (Germany)

63. Moby Dick= Herman Melville (United States)

64. Essays= Michel de Montaigne (France)

65. History= Elsa Morante (Italy)

66. Beloved= Toni Morrison (United States)

67. The Tale of the Genji= Murasaki Shikibu (Japan)

68. The Man Without Qualities= Robert Musil (Austria)

69. Lolita= Vladmir Nabokov (Russia)

70. 1984= George Orwell (Britain)

71. Metamorphoses= Ovid (Roman Empire)

72. The Book of Disquiet= Fernando Pessoa (Portugal)

73. Tales= Edgar Alan Poe (United States)

74. In Search of Lost Time= Marcel Proust (France)

75. The Life of Gargantua and Pantagruel= Francois Rabelais (France)

76. Pedro Paramo= Juan Rulfo (Mexico)

77. Masnavi= Jalaludin Rumi (Iran)

78. The Count of Monte Cristo= Alexander Dumas Pierre

79. Bostan= Sadi (Iran)

80. Season of Migration to the North= Tayeb Salih (Sudan)

81. Blindness= Jose Saramago (Portugal)

82. Hamlet= Wiliam Shakespear (Britain)

83. King Lear= Wlilliam Shakespeare

84. Othello= William Shakepeare

85. Oedipus the King= Sophocles (Greek)

86. The Red and the Black= Stendhal (France)

87. Tristram Shandy= Laurence Sterne (Britain)

88. Confessions of Zeno= Italo Svevo (Italy)

89. Gulliver’s Travels= Jonathan Swift (Ireland)

90. War and Peace= Leo Tolstoy (Russia)

91. Anna Karenina= Leo Tolstoy (Russia)

92. The Death of Ivan Ilich= Leo Tolstoy (Russia)

93. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn= Mark Twain (United States)

94. Ramayana= Valmiki (India)

95. Aenid= Virgil (Roman Empire)

96. Mahabharata= Vyasa (India)

97. Leaves of Grass= Walt Whitman (United States)

98. Mrs Dalloway= Virginia Woolf (Britain)

99. To the Lighthouse= Virginia Woolf (Britain)

100. Memoirs of Hadrian= Marguerite Yourcenar (France)

What is an RTF file?


An ' .rtf ' file is a word processing document. RTF stands for “Rich Text Format”, and is a file format designed to make it easy to share word processing documents between different computer platforms. Most word processing applications are able to work with .rtf files.

Word is Just One Word Processor

When it comes to word processing, most people think of Microsoft Word and .doc files. Since both Word and the .doc format are so widespread, they have become synonymous with word processing. The fact is that Microsoft Word is just one word processor and .doc is just one word processing document format. There are other word processing applications around — Open Office.org’s Writer, for example.

With different people using different software (e.g. Word, Writer) and different operating systems (e.g. Windows, Mac OS X, Linux), there is bound to be confusion when it comes to sharing files. The Rich Text Format was designed to make sending word processing documents simple by eliminating the need to concern yourself with which software and operating system the recipient uses. Since a variety of office productivity software on many different operating systems are able to work with .rtf files, you can send one to someone who doesn’t use Word, or does not have Windows.

How to Open a .rtf File

Since most word processing applications can open .rtf files, you should not have much trouble viewing or editing one’s contents. Just click File → Open, navigate to your .rtf file, and open it. Some programs may prompt you about converting the file — once you do so, you should see the file’s contents.

Screen writingTIPS

Most people get into writing because they love the sound of their

own prose. People have told them you ought to write because their

letters and emails play like song lyrics. So we bring this love of

words to our attempts to craft fiction, and thus fall into the first and

deepest pit awaiting new writers: overwriting. Purple writing.

Too many adjectives. Writing that clutters things up. 

Pretty writing that doesn’t tell a great story.

The thing is, editors know they can fix mediocre writing. But they

don’t have the patience to fix a broken story. You can sell a great

story that’s poorly written in terms of its prose, but you can’t sell a

lousy story no matter how well the words sing.

Read the bestsellers and you’ll see that the longer and more

profitably someone publishes stories, the less flowery and elegant

their prose. This is a seductive trap for amateur critics, including

newer writers, because when the see the efficiency and clarity of,

say, John Grisham’s writing, they label it vanilla and begin to think

they can do just as well.

If that’s you, then this is one of the best tips in this book. Pretty

words are like a gorgeous actress who can’t utter a line. No work for

her. Pretty words don’t count in New York. Great stories do.

Writing is like the air. The best air is fresh, completely void of odor.

Sometimes a hint of scent works, sometimes it doesn’t. But almost

always, an overwhelming stench – one person’s perfume is another

person’s need to fumigate – will get you rejected.

Clear the air in your writing. Write with refreshingly efficient and

easy prose. Like a clean breeze. Words that go down easy.

And then tell your story with ferocity and complete mastery of the

storytelling craft.

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